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Archive for the ‘Science’ Category

Aha, We’re Both Wrong!

You know, the thing about being a genius is, you are able to teach yourself. And sometimes, you prove yourself wrong. And that, is when you feel like a COMPLETE IDIOT. Dumb, dumb dumb, dumb dumb.
 I watched this television show called “How the Earth was Made”. On this episode, they covered the formation of the Earth. A theory they gave as near fact was that the water on earth came from outer space in the form of the debris that formed the earth. Alone, this sounds like a good theory. Even with the minor traces of water found in the space rocks there is plenty of water to cover the planet. Good in theory.
 At first I found the idea ludicrous. Utter nonsense. The I began to write this Article and, halfway through, I proved both the theory and myself partially wrong. Awesome. Now, I feel stupid.
 I’ll backtrack a bit and give you my previous standpoint. They overlooked the early (pre-Moon) Earth DID NOT have its current magnetic field. That was created AFTER a Mars-sized object slammed at a slightly off center trajectory and marred the Earth sending large amounts of debris which either fell back to Earth or formed The Moon. It was THIS event which helped create the Earth’s supreme magnetic field.
 Why is this important?
 Because of Dissociation. I’ll get to that. First, let’s take a look at our neighbors, Mars & Venus.
 In their early years, they were similar to early Earth. However, despite similar compositions and genesis conditions, Mars and Venus have relatively little water. The reason why is they lack the magnetic field of Earth.
 As the water from extraplanetary objects vaporized in the early atmosphere of both Venus, Earth, & Mars, the volatile gases (including steam) were greatly effected by solar winds. As these early planets were struck by solar winds, gamma & ultraviolet radiation in the winds bombarded the early atmosphere. This radiation easily tore apart the weak hydrogen bonds in water. This is what is called, Dissociation. The hydrogen then either quickly combined into stronger bonds such as Hydrogen Sulfide (H2S) or the accompanying solar winds ripped the lightweight hydrogen atoms off the upper atmospheres of both planets and sent them into the outer solar system. The related (now free) oxygen atoms quickly combined to form other chemicals (O3, CO, CO2, SO2).
 Because H2S, SO2, & CO2 are greenhouse gases, in great amounts, they formed a thick blanket of gases around Venus. So thick, in fact, that Venus has a nearly uniform surface temperature of over 864°F (462°C) and a sea-level atmospheric pressure of 91.6 times earth at sea-level. So if my math is correct (and my memory hold true that Earth’s sea-level pressure is 14.6 psi), that means 1337.36 psi. This is the same pressure at a depth of (1 km) under the ocean waters of Earth.
 The Russians sent a probe that landed on Venus. It lasted like 4 hours before the pressure crushed it like an empty beer can.
 Mars, on the other hand, since it lacks proximity to the sun that Venus has, took the big freeze route. You see, since CO2 sublimates (it goes from a gas to a solid state; it has no ‘natural’ liquid state), the CO2 readily accumulated at the poles. This led to the lowering of the overall temperature of the planet and reinforced the accretion of CO2 into the glacial polar caps, which helped lower the temperature, etc.,.
 Thus the warmest Mars gets is 79F at the equator on the warmest day of the Martian year. Its lowest temperature it more than twice the record low on Earth.
 Earth would’ve ended up like Venus if not for a Giant Impact which slammed a Mars-sized proto-planet (just off center) into Early Earth. This sent its core into our core, which causes the Earth’s core to spin faster than the rotation of the Earth itself. This creates the gigant magnetic field that protects Earth.
 The magnetic field pushes a great amount of the solar winds and it composite radiation at more acute angles deflecting it away from the planet. This helps to trap the Hydrogen on Earth os it doesn’t get swept away.
 Dissociation still occurs, however. This is why we have an Ozone Layer (comprised of O3). And it is because of this O3 that this planet has life. It, itself, dissociates when struck by UV & Gamma rays. Deflecting the rays away from the surface. (Of course saying that O3 deflects Gamma rays is like saying, a grain of dust changed the path of a baseball. But given the size and thickness of the atmosphere and angle of atmospheric entry that is a hell of a lot of dust to avoid. When gamma rays hit atoms that go boom. Along with whatever atoms they hit.) This deflecting let Life form. Amino acids are fragile. One hit and they’d be done. This includes every cell of the human body. No Ozone = No Life; No Magnetic Field = No Water Vapor.
 Do you see where a proved the theory and myself both right and wrong?
 Let’s take another look at Early Earth and its Giant Impactor. During their Primary Formation (by that I mean the time before they had a substantial atmosphere), any objects that impacted the surface struck unhindered into a semisolid molten mass. In other words, it was like firing a bullet rock into thick mud. It punches through. Thick enough mud and it eventually stops mostly melted into the substrate. This means that any water would be swallowed up in this molten ball of magma with only some of it leaking out of the semisolid lava-like surface. After the Giant Impact, and the accompanying core spin, any interplanetary or extraplanetary objects WOULD have deposited their water in the atmosphere of strata of Earth.
 See, we were both only half-right.

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Esse est Percipi

 

“Esse est Percipi.” To Be is to Be Perceived.

– George Berkeley

Heisenberg’s Uncertainty Principle, in short, states that the mere act of observation changes what is being observed. It’s moderately true in psychology and sociology, but unequivocally true in quantum physics. You can’t know what a particle is doing unless you interact with it or something interacts with it on your behalf. Take the classic particle/wave inference experiment. When observed at every point along its path a particle will appear as a single entity but if you just watch the end the particle has to have been a wave. Okay, I got that one.

 

 

Particles are bound to a “complementary twin” via Weak Force. Got that. What I was reading was talking about bound electrons and that when you destroy one (ergo convert it from matter to energy) it will destroy the other instantaneously regardless of distance. They could be separated by miles and they both wink out at the same moment, “communicating” their state with each other faster than the speed of light. And whenever they were measured their axial orientation (I think that’s what it’s called.) was complementary. So if one registered as horizontal the other would always register as vertical.

Now here’s where I get pondersome. They were speaking of bound pairs of electrons. But if you think about the Zero Point Field Theory, where in a near perfect vacuum (implying only the absence of matter) two particles will form (one of matter, one of its complementary antimatter mirror) and annihilate each other to keep a vacuum from being perfect, there would be no bound pair of particles. Unless a particle’s complement need not be of its same type (electronó electron), but could be of its mirror as well (electron ó positron). Because otherwise these pairs of matter/antimatter particles that annihilate each other would be unbound particles. But then again if the particles were bound to each other that leads to an other problem.

A black hole’s event horizon is a prime zero point field example and in so far as I have read, Hawking’s theory of a black hole’s evaporation relies (to a degree) on it. Now if of the mirrored pairs that form, one falls in and one is flung out, than the one that falls in is destroyed and the other must be destroyed as a consequence of the destruction of the first. I’ve not come across this in my readings. So now I’m completely lost! Either particles formed in a Zero Point Field are not bound at all or black holes should be alight from these paired complementary particle’s destruction as it occurs beyond its “terminal” reach. Now I’m even more confused because I thought every particle was bound, but black holes are most certainly “black”.

180px-BlackHole

Then what the hell is the answer? Ockham’s Razor states that the simplest answer is usually the right one. So what is the simplest answer?

 

Could someone shed some light on this for me? Have I missed something? Or am I thinking in a different way?

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